Do you know Android 13 new feature? - Android 13, Android Updates, Android OS
Android is an open source and Linux-based Operating System for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies.
Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance and commercially sponsored by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device, the HTC Dream, being launched in September 2008.
Most versions of Android are proprietary. The core components are taken from the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), which is free and open-source software (FOSS) primarily licensed under the Apache License. When Android is installed on devices, the ability to modify the otherwise FOSS software is usually restricted, either by not providing the corresponding source code or preventing reinstallation through technical measures, rendering the installed version proprietary. Most Android devices ship with additional proprietary software pre-installed, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS) which includes core apps such as Google Chrome, the digital distribution platform Google Play, and the associated Google Play Services development platform.
It was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as having "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences". The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, and this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company then decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, and five months later it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile.
Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, and Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, and stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy."
Versions and It Names
- Android 1.0
Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008. The first commercially available Android device was the HTC Dream. Android 1.0 incorporated the following features:
- Android Market, allowing application downloads and updates through the Market application.
- Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows ("cards").
- Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc.
- Folders allowing the grouping of several application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen.
- Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP.
- Gmail synchronization with the Gmail application.
- Google Contacts synchronization with the People application.
- Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar application.
- Google Maps with Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local businesses and obtain driving directions using GPS.
- Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar.
- Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc.
- Google Talk instant messaging.
- Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS.
- Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support.
- Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED, or vibration alerts.
- Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing phone calls without typing a name or number.
- Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets.
- YouTube video player.
- Other applications include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings.
- Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support.
- Android 1.1
On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was not used officially. The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API, and added several features:
- Details and reviews are available when a user searches for businesses on Maps.
- Longer in-call screen timeout by default when using the speakerphone, plus the ability to show/hide the dial pad.
- Ability to save attachments in messages.
- Support added for a marquee in system layouts etc.
- Android 1.5: Cupcake
On April 27, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27.] This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ("Cupcake"), a theme used for all releases until Android Pie, with Android 10 using a number-only system. The update included several new features and UI amendments:
- Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and a user dictionary for custom words.
- Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates.
- Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats.
- Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles).
- Copy and paste features in the web browser.
- User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts.
- Specific date/time stamp shown for events in the call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from a call log event.
- Animated screen transitions.
- Auto-rotation option.
- New stock boot animation.
- Ability to upload videos to YouTube.
- Ability to upload photos to Picasa.
- Ability to check phone usage history.
- Android 1.6: Donut
On September 15, 2009, Android 1.6 – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Included in the update were numerous new features:
- Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web.
- Ability for developers to include their content in search results.
- Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text etc.
- Android 2.0: Eclair
On October 27, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and codenamed Eclair. Changes include the ones listed below.
- Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of an email and contacts.
- Microsoft Exchange email support, with a combined inbox to browse an email from multiple accounts on one page.
- Bluetooth 2.1 support.
- Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person.
- Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with the added ability to delete the oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached, etc.
- Android 2.2: Froyo
On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for frozen yogurt) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.
- Speed, memory, and performance optimizations.
- Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation.
- Android 2.3: Gingerbread
On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35. Changes included:
- Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed.
- Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher).
- Native support for SIP VoIP internet telephones.
- Faster, more intuitive text input on a virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better-suggested text and voice input mode, etc.
- Android 3.0: Honeycomb
On February 22, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36. The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on February 24, 2011. The update's features include:
- Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface (removed again the following year with version 4.2).
- New Easter egg, an image of a Tron-themed bumblebee.
- Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen.
- Added the Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen, etc.
- Android 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich
The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1, was publicly released on October 19, 2011. Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time. The source code for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011. Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support Adobe Systems' Flash player. The update introduced numerous new features:
- Major refinements to the "Holo" interface with the new Roboto font family.
- Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones.
- Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed similarly to applications.
- Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style, etc.
- Android 4.1: Jelly Bean
Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing, and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on July 9, 2012, and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.
- Smoother user interface:
- Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition, and display refresh.
- Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline.
- CPU input boost.
- Synchronizing touch to vsync timing.
- Enhanced accessibility.
- Bi-directional text and other language support etc.
- Android 4.4: KitKat
Google announced Android 4.4 KitKat on September 3, 2013. Although initially under the "Key Lime Pie" ("KLP") codename, the name was changed because "very few people know the taste of a key lime pie." Some technology bloggers also expected the "Key Lime Pie" release to be Android 5. KitKat debuted on Google's Nexus 5 on October 31, 2013, and was optimized to run on a greater range of devices than earlier Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum; those improvements were known as "Project Svelte" internally at Google. The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as "low RAM" devices.
- Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue.
- Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.
- Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars.
- Ability for applications to use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction etc.
- Android 5.0: Lollipop
Android 5.0 "Lollipop" was unveiled under the codename "Android L" on June 25, 2014, during Google I/O. It became available as an official over-the-air(OTA) update on November 12, 2014, for select devices that run distributions of Android serviced by Google, includingNexusandGoogle Play edition devices. Its source code was made available on November 3, 2014.
Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive design language referred to as "material design". Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lock screen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners. Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime (ART) officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as Project Volta
- Android Runtime (ART) with ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation and improved garbage collection (GC), replacing Dalvik which combines bytecode interpretation with trace-based just-in-time (JIT) compilation.
- Support for 64-bit CPUs.
- OpenGL ES 3.1 and Android Extension Pack (AEP) on supported GPU configurations.
- Recent activities screen with tasks instead of applications, up to a configured maximum of tasks per application, etc.
- Android 6.0: Marshmallow
Android 6.0 "Marshmallow" was unveiled under the codename "Android M" during Google I/O on May 28, 2015, for the Nexus 5 and Nexus 6 phones, Nexus 9 tablet, and Nexus Player set-top box, under the build number MPZ44Q. The third developer preview (MPA44G) was released on August 17, 2015, for the Nexus 5, Nexus 6, Nexus 9, and Nexus Player devices, and was updated to MPA44I that bringing fixes related to Android for Work profiles.
- Precluded rudimentary file manager (package name:
com.android.documentsui), accessible from storage settings.
- Memory card mounted to
/storage/extSdCard/, with a hexadecimal volume serial number in place of the wildcard the question marks.
- Contextual search from keywords within apps.
- Introduction of Doze mode, which reduces CPU speed while the screen is off in order to save battery life.
- App Standby feature.
- Alphabetically accessible vertical application drawer etc.
- Android 7.0: Nougat
Android "Nougat" (codenamed N in-development) is the seventh major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview on March 9, 2016, with factory images for supported Nexus devices, as well as with the new "Android Beta Program" which allows supported devices to be upgraded directly to the Android Nougat beta via an over-the-air update. The final release was on August 22, 2016. The final preview build was released on July 18, 2016, with the build number NPD90G.
- Support for file-based encryption.
- Unicode 9.0 emoji and skin tone modifier support (and exposes a subset of ICU4J APIs).
- Ability to display color calibration.
- Ability to zoom in on the screen.
- Ability to switch to the last opened app by double-tapping the overview button etc.
- Android 8.0: Oreo
Android Oreo is the eighth major release of the Android operating system. It was first released as a developer preview, codenamed Android O, on March 21, 2017, with factory images for supported Nexus and Pixel devices. The final developer preview was released on July 24, 2017, with the stable version released in August 2017.
- Project Treble, the biggest change to the foundations of Android to date: a modular architecture that makes it easier and faster for hardware makers to deliver Android updates.
- Picture-in-picture support.
- Support for Unicode 10.0 emoji (5.0) and replacement of all blob-shaped emojis by round ones with gradients and outlines.
- Redesigned Quick Settings and Settings with a white background and respectively black and Accent font colors etc.
- Android 9: Pie
Android Pie is the ninth major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on March 7, 2018, and the first developer preview was released on the same day. The second preview, considered beta quality, was released on May 8, 2018. The final beta of Android Pie (the fifth preview, also considered a "Release Candidate") was released on July 25, 2018. The first official release was released on August 6, 2018.
- New user interface for the quick settings menu.
- The clock has moved to the left of the notification bar.
- The "dock" now has a semi-transparent background.
- Battery Saver no longer shows an orange overlay on the notification and status bars etc.
- Android 10: Quince Tart
Android 10 is the tenth major version of the Android operating system. The stable version of Android 10 was released on September 3, 2019.
- Revamped full-screen gesture navigation with new app open/close animations.
- Scoped storage restrictions
- New permissions are required to access location in background and to access photo, video, and audio files.
- Background apps can no longer jump into the foreground.
- Limited access to non-resettable device identifiers.
- Background (idle) access to camera, microphone, and sensors disabled for more privacy protection with the side effect of disabling antitheft software, etc.
- Android 11: Red Velvet Cake
Android 11 is the eleventh major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on February 19, 2020, and the first developer preview was released on the same day.
The launch of Android 11 Beta was postponed from June 3, 2020, to June 10, 2020.
- Chat bubbles.
- Screen recorder.
- Notification history.
- New permissions controls.
- API distinction between standalone 5G NR and non-standalone 5G.
- One-time permission.
- Permissions auto-reset.
- Wireless Android Auto on devices with 5GHz Wi-Fi.
- Increased the number of updatable core OS components in Google Play from 12 to 21.
- Enterprise work profile privacy protections now apply on company-owned devices.
- Independent left and right edge sensitivity for gesture navigation etc.
- Android 12: Snow Cone
Android 12 is the twelfth major version of the Android operating system. It was first announced by Google on February 18, 2021, and the first developer preview was released on the same day.
- Easier Wi-Fi sharing.
- AVIF image support.
- Material You, an updated design language based on Material Design.
- Scrolling Screenshot.
- One-Handed Mode.
- Android Runtime (ART) module added to the updatable core OS components via Google Play, added functionality to existing modules.
- Area Magnification can zoom in on any content on the device.
- Extra Dim reduces brightness below the minimum level.
- Bold Text.
- Mic and Camera indicator and toggle.
- Option to choose the precise or approximate location.
- Privacy Dashboard.
- Gestures can work in immersive mode etc.
- Android 13: Tiramisu
Android 12 is out on most of the world’s best smartphones, but we’re already looking ahead to Android 13. The next big iteration of Google’s mobile operating system has already seen two developer previews and four major beta releases. What’s more, it looks like we might see a stable launch much earlier this year as compared to the last.
Below, we look at what you can expect from the forthcoming major Android version release.
- Name and release date
Before Android 10, Google named its OS versions after sweet treats. Although it has switched to a number publically, it often still refers to versions as confections internally. Thanks to the first developer preview, we know the codename for Android 13 is “Tiramisu.” This is the first time in a long while we’ve seen Google be so upfront with the codename.
As for Android 13’s release date, So far, Google has launched two developer previews and eight betas for Android 13, with the eighth beta landing on July 13. These have been early versions of the operating system. However, the latest beta is a release candidate, which means it is very nearly complete. Judging from that schedule, we expect a stable launch sometime in August 2022. Android 13 is currently on its fourth beta release.
Android 12 brought one of the operating system’s most significant UI revamps in years with Material You. The new interface enables more personable customization options, from wallpaper-based color palette controls to more intuitive animations. Android 13 does not appear to change things as radically, but Google is still going to bring new features and design tweaks.
- New material you color option.
- Auto-theming icons.
- Alternative lock screen clock setup.
- now playing widget.
- Native Bluetooth LE audio support.
- Edit text directly from the clipboard.
- Easy access to QR code scanning.
- Privacy and security updates.
- Panilingual app-specific language.
- Control your smart home devices from the lock screen.
- 3D. cinematic wallpapers and wallpaper dimming.
- Tap to switch between audio devices, etc.
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